We all know about attractions such as the Colosseum, the Great Wall and the Taj Mahal. But in the world there are other grandiose objectives that have never heard about the most passionate travelers in the world. And they are worthy of our attention.
Eurotunnel was inaugurated on 6 May 1994 and is considered one of the seven wonders of the modern world, with a length of 50 kilometers with 39 kilometers underwater.
Work began in 1988 on the two ends, and the first junction between the two galleries, French and English took place on 1 December 1990. The work lasted six years.
At a maximum depth of 70 meters under the English Channel by Eurotunnel, Eurostar travels, high-speed train (TVG), linking London, Paris and Brussels. For technical reasons, the tunnel speed is limited to 160 kilometers per hour. The journey between the two ends of the tunnel takes about 30 minutes.
Construction has two rail tunnels 7.6 meters, one in each direction and a gallery of srviciu 4.8 meters by running special vehicles.
Every day the tunnel is crossed by 400 trains carrying an average of 50,000 passengers, 6,000 cars, 180 buses and 54,000 tons of other cargo.
An investment too expensive
Total investment cost was about 20 billion dollars (about 15 billion), double the initial costs Etim. The money was provided mostly by private investors who lost about 87% of the amount. Their shares have lost nearly 90% of the value of starting lucrăilor and until 1998.
Since the inauguration Eurotunnel, the company that worked in loss of administering galleries. In 2003 losses had risen to 1.33 billion pounds. Eurotunnel has justified these losses through poor use of infrastructure and difficult access it.
Moreover, the contracted interest rates were too high and passenger traffic was 38% lower than estimated, and the cargo was 24% below what was originally calculated.
Amid scandals between shareholders and company management company has been severely restructured in 2007, when 9.2 billion debt was reduced to 4.6 billion. In this way Eurotunnel profit reported first car in 2007 amounted to about one million euros.
Once solved the financial issues, analysts at Le Monde commented: “Eurotunnel has become a money making machine that sees its future in pink”.
An idea from the 1800s
The first idea to build a tunnel between France and England dates from 1802 and belongs French engineer Albert Mathieu Favier. The request was supported by Englishman Henry Mottray later and, a year later.Favier Napoleon had managed to obtain consent for such work, but the British rejected the idea for fear that the tunnel could facilitate the conquest of England by the French.
In 1855, French engineer Thome by Gaumont proposes a tunnel between Cape Gris-Nez (Pas-de-Calais) and Cape Eastwear with baskets vent in full sea and an artificial island bench Varnes, which have housed a maritime station. The idea came in the context of rail transport in Europe was beginning to take shape.
In 1867 William Low and Sir George Clarke Hawkshaw proposed a project to build links between France and Britain. In 1876 a committee was formed the most important Anglo-French works that started a stretch of underground railway. In 1881 began test drilling.
In 1883, at the request of French works are interrupted for military reasons. By that time, England was drilled from a long tunnel of 2,026 meters and one from France 1,839 meters.
The idea of a direct link between France and England was abandoned until after the Second World War. The talks are resumed in 1957 when it formed a study group aimed at construction of the tunnel under the English Channel. Negotiations lasted until 1972 when it signed the first agreement on this issue between France and England.
In 1973 work began on both sides, as two years later, the British ceasing to ask them for economic reasons. On January 20th 1975 the works were stopped. It had dug 300 meters from 400 meters in French and the British.
Landmark agreement for starting work on the tunnel coming in January 1986 at a meeting in Lille between Mitterrand and Margaret Thatcher. Eight months after this meeting was created Eurotunnel company. All administrative arrangements were put in place by the end of 1987 and beginning of 1988 the works of the two parties, and the inauguration took place on May 6, 1994.
History provides sanctity to just One record of seven wonders that the one compiled in 200 BC by that the Greek math Philon of Byzantium. The monuments which featured in the early record were that the Colossus of Rhodes that the pharos in Alexandria, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon that the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, the Excellent Pyramid of Giza, that the Mausoleum of Mausolus at Halicarnassus and that the Statue of Zeus in Olympia. The Taj Mahal doesn’t figure in it because obviously it didn’t exist then. The custom of Seven Wonders has prompted succeeding generations to compile hundreds of lists sice the Alexandrian era.
The Seven Wonders of that the Middle ages were that the Colosseum of Rome that the Catacombs of Alexzandria that the Excellent Wall of CHina, that the Stonehenge that the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, China, that the leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy, and that the Hagia Sopia of Constantinople. The new seven wonders project kicked off at the year 2001 by that the swiss adventure Bernard Weber, rectifies a problem with that the old record. Actually the Greek authors were restricted by their boundaries and could not have seen what was happening around the world. Afterwards there was global movement to select the new seven wonders of the planet by organised international polling.
Seven wonders of the world, less known to tourists
Great Mosque in Mali Djené
Djené Mosque is the largest building in the world aluviară clay. Djené located in the old city, the mosque was included in 1988 on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Now, the mosque is closed for tourists. It is believed that the decision was taken in 1996 at its walls after a photo shoot for Vogue.
Chand Baori in India
Chand Baori architectural complex, located in the small Indian village Abhaneri is one of the oldest and deepest wells in the world stage. Giant structure that resembles an inverted pyramid, descend underground more than 30 meters on three of its walls there, in a perfect symmetry, 3,500 steps leading to the water – a small green lake cloudy. Scientists continue to discuss whether the fountain was built between centuries IX – XI or 600 years before our era.
Egypt will rebuild one of the “seven wonders of the ancient world”